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Pots made from iron, bronze, or copper started to change the pottery utilized previously. The temperature level was controlled by hanging the pot greater or lower over the fire, or putting it on a trivet or straight on the hot ashes. Using open fire for cooking (and heating) was dangerous; fires devastating whole cities took place frequently.
This type of system was extensively used in wealthier homes. Beginning in the late Middle Ages, kitchens in Europe lost their home-heating function a lot more and were progressively moved from the living area into a separate room. The living-room was now heated up by cocklestoves, operated from the cooking area, which used the huge benefit of not filling the room with smoke.
In the upper classes, cooking and the cooking area were the domain of the servants, and the kitchen was set apart from the living-room, in some cases even far from the dining room. Poorer houses typically did not yet have a different kitchen area; they kept the one-room arrangement where all activities occurred, or at the most had the cooking area in the entryway hall.
In a few European farmhouses, the smoke kitchen area remained in regular usage up until the middle of the 20th century. These homes often had no chimney, but only a smoke hood above the fireplace, made from wood and covered with clay, used to smoke meat. The smoke rose more or less easily, warming the upstairs spaces and protecting the woodwork from vermin.
One early record of a kitchen is discovered in the 1648 stock of the estate of a John Porter of Windsor, Connecticut. The stock notes goods in your home "over the kittchin" and "in the kittchin". The products noted in the cooking area were: silver spoons, pewter, brass, iron, arms, ammo, hemp, flax and "other implements about the room".
In the southern states, where the climate and sociological conditions differed from the north, the kitchen was frequently relegated to an outbuilding. On plantations, it was separate from the big home or mansion in similar way as the feudal kitchen area in medieval Europe: the kitchen was run by servants in the antebellum years.